Painting by Cheri Samba

Lokuta eyaka na ascenseur, kasi vérité eyei na escalier mpe ekomi. Lies come up in the elevator; the truth takes the stairs but gets here eventually. - Koffi Olomide

Ésthetique eboma vélo. Aesthetics will kill a bicycle. - Felix Wazekwa

Wednesday, June 27, 2012

The UN report on Rwandan intervention in the eastern Congo

The UN Group of Experts on the DR Congo submitted the celebrated addendum to its interim report yesterday. The addendum (apparently the correct terminology) is due to be published later today or tomorrow, but, Security Council politics being what they are, leaked copies are already circulating. I have obtained one; here is a summary and a brief analysis. 

The report deals exclusively with Rwandan support to armed groups and sanctioned individuals in the eastern Congo, and the findings are extremely damning. The Group finds that Rwanda is providing extensive support not just to the M23 rebellion, but to six other armed groups in the eastern Congo. Some of the support allegedly dates back to last year, although most of Rwanda's early involvement was aimed at assassinating individual FDLR leaders, using proxy militia such as Sheka Ntaberi's NDC or the FDC (aka "Les Guides"). At some point, however, Rwanda's aims changed, and they began backing groups that opposed the Congolese government. These included the M23, but also include a new coalition of armed groups in Ituri, an abortive mutiny in Bukavu, the irredentist former governor of South Kivu (Chiribanya) and a local militia in Masisi. This attempt to build a cross-regional coalition is reminiscent of Nkunda's CNDP, that was always trying to break out of the Kinyarwanda-speaking community and rally other communities and leaders to its cause.

However, most of these other groups are either barely alive or not (yet) very important. As in the case with the CNDP, the outreach efforts have not gained much traction. The main group is still the M23.

But when it comes to the M23, the allegations are hard-hitting. The support they document consists of providing ammunition and guns, health care, training, and new recruits. They also provide details of meetings organized by top Rwandan officials, including senior defense ministry representatives, to mobilize Congolese business and politicians to join M23. They claim that the Rwandan government has used its demobilization commission networks to mobilize ex-combatants, many of whom used to fight in the FDLR, as well as allowing recruitment to happen in the refugee camps largely populated by Congolese Tutsi. Most egregiously, they report that Rwanda has sent its own army into the Congo to support the mutiny on several occasions. 

The Group names individuals within the Rwandan government by name, saying that the following people played key roles: Defense Minister General James Kabarebe, the Defense Forces Chief of Staff General Charles Kayonga, the Permanent Secretary of the ministry of Defense General Jack Nziza, and Rwandan army division commander General Emmanuel Ruvusha. These officers have attended mobilization meetings, been in direct contact with mutineers, and have been seen organizing logistical support to the M23. 

On the M23 side, besides Col. Sultani Makenga and Gen. Bosco Ntaganda, Laurent Nkunda is making a reappearance in M23 meetings and mobilization. The Group has also found that Rwanda is supporting individuals – Gen. Ntaganda, Col. Zimurinda and Sheka – who are on the UN sanctions list.

The Rwandan government has already attacked the Group's methodology, so it is worth saying a few words about who they are and what standards they use. 

The Group consists of six experts: Steve Hege (USA, coordinator and armed groups expert), Marie Plamadiala (Moldova, customs and aviation), Ruben de Koenig (Netherlands, natural resources), Steven Spittaels (Belgium, finance), Nelson Alusala (Kenya, arms), and Emilie Serralta (France, regional issues). Most of them - like Hege, who is a former MONUC official and has worked for Jesuit Refugee Service and Refugee International in the region - have spent over five years working on the region.

The Group usually requires three independent and reliable sources to make a claim. In this case, however, given the severity and importance of the allegations, they say they rely on at least five such sources. Most of the evidence is eye-witness testimony - they interviewed 80 deserters from these various armed groups, including 31 Rwandan nationals, along with senior Congolese army and intelligence officers and active members of the various armed groups. They have some documentary evidence, including internal Congolese army reports and radio intercepts, as well as pictures of M23 weapons and ammo that are not in Congolese army stocks. 

In other words, there is extensive evidence of systematic Rwandan intervention in the DRC in violation of the UN sanctions regime, not to mention of Congolese sovereignty. Many questions, however, remain open: Why is Rwanda doing this? What is their ultimate goal? When did they decide to back these rebellions? What will the international community, which provides almost half of Rwanda's budget - including military cooperation and support to the demobilization commission - do? And what will the Rwandan reaction be, given that donors have invested billions in successful development projects, and Rwanda provides much-needed troops to the African Union mission in Darfur?


Anonymous said...

People of DRC as I sais this is not the first time Rwanda implication in genocide in Congo Refugee camp 97-98 millions death under Laurent Kabila while Joseph was known as Commandant Hyppo in Kisangani(Hyppolithe Kanambe ),Joseph Kabila real name Makobola genocide etc..Jules mutebusi, Laurent Kunda 2008 and the Latest Bosco Tangana. What about the Rapport mapping 2010, and now M23 with Makenga Millions of Congolese people are killed it’s a genocide. Still the Un specially the UN security council is unable to take action, I do not know maybe I can be wrong if there is a country or a people in the world being let down this way by the international community afraid to intervene just because the USA is gave to Paul Kagame the Licence to Kill in The Democratic Republic of Congo, then no one can say anything to contradict what the US policy in Congo as we all know that they financing most of Monusco budget. The US help to train the Congolese Army in Kisangani but in the other hand there are the one blocking the UN rapport providing evidence of Rwanda implication of invading, looting and killing millions of Congolese Innocents people in Congo, what hypocrisy, what can we think today thing about US also, the Up knowing this trying to published a statement to support the Congolese Army and Monusco what a mockery. The UK and US support the Rwanda government for decade in contributing to Rwanda budget in what is spend in army equipments to kill in Congo.
Today this is simply a true picture of support of the US and UK to Paul Kagame to Kill who he wants in Congo without being question by anyone and we all see his arrogance when he has speaks about what he does in Congo , and peace and protection is for Kagame death, starvation, refugee are for Congolese. One day all this will end, yes will end, and yes will end. God protect my people God Protect my people God protect my people. I wept for my country and people while writing this word. We will save this country.

Anonymous said...

People of DRc as i sais this is not the first time Rwanda implication in genocide in congo Refugee camp 97-98 millions death under Laurent Kabila while joseph was known as Commandand Hyppo in kinsangani(Hyppolite Kanambe)Makobola genocide etc..Jules mutebusi after Laurent Kunda 2008 and the Latest Bosco Tangana, Rapport mapping 2010. And Now M23 with Makenga Millions of Congolese people are killed it's a genocide. Still the Un specially the UN security council is unable to take action, I do not know maybe i can be wrong that a country or a peolple being let down this way by the internationnal community just because the USA is gave to Kagame the Licence to Kill in Congo

Unknown said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Unknown said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Anonymous said...

People of DRC as I sais this is not the first time Rwanda implication in genocide in Congo Refugee camp 97-98 millions death under Laurent Kabila while Joseph was known as Commandant Hyppo in Kisangani(Hyppolithe Kanambe ),Joseph Kabila real name Makobola genocide etc..Jules mutebusi, Laurent Kunda 2008 and the Latest Bosco Tangana. What about the Rapport mapping 2010, and now M23 with Makenga Millions of Congolese people are killed it’s a genocide. Still the Un specially the UN security council is unable to take action, I do not know maybe I can be wrong if there is a country or a people in the world being let down this way by the international community afraid to intervene just because the USA is gave to Paul Kagame the Licence to Kill in The Democratic Republic of Congo, then no one can say anything to contradict what the US policy in Congo as we all know that they financing most of Monusco budget. The US help to train the Congolese Army in Kisangani but in the other hand there are the one blocking the UN rapport providing evidence of Rwanda implication of invading, looting and killing millions of Congolese Innocents people in Congo, what hypocrisy, what can we think today thing about US also, the UK knowing this trying to published a statement to support the Congolese Army and Monusco what a mockery. The UK and US support the Rwanda government for decade in contributing to Rwanda budget in what is spend in army equipments to kill in Congo.
Today this is simply a true picture of support of the US and UK to Paul Kagame to Kill who he wants in Congo without being question by anyone and we all see his arrogance when he has to speaks about what he does in Congo , and peace and protection is for Kagame. Death, starvation, refugees that’s what Congolese people get in return. One day all this will end, yes will end, and yes will end. God protect my people God Protect my people God protect my people. I wept for my country and people while writing this word. We will save this country.

marg said...

Jason, what do you think could be Kabila's reaction?

Anonymous said...

Anonymous said...


Anonymous said...

Objectifs atteints: le mandat de la Monusco a été renouvelé ainsi que de tous les vautours pour une année encore. Wait and see in June 2013 other people will be again refugees. Pauvre Congo.

Anonymous said...

Jason why do you not give the answers on your questions that are in the "addendum"?

I read on the blog of Lynch:
"The U.N. panel also charged that Kabarebe's personal assistant, Celestin Senkoko, and other Rwandan officers mounted a "wide-ranging" effort to convince Congolese businessmen, politicians, and former rebels that had joined the ranks of the Congolese army to join the so-called M23 mutiny with the aim prosecuting "a new war to obtain a secession of both Kivus," the eastern Congolese provinces that share ethnic and historical ties to Rwanda."

So you ask Why is Rwanda doing this?
The report says they do it TO OBTAIN A SECESSION OF BOTH KIVUS.

Do you disagree with the report on this?


Jason Stearns said...

@last Anon: Yes, Senkoko and others have indeed been saying this in meetings. But others involved in M23 suggest that this is merely mobilizing rhetoric and that RPF leaders know this is not possible or desirable.

Anonymous said...

Jason, thanks for that analysis, which is quite worrying.
Does the pending publication mean, that US have found a compromise at the state department? Couple of days ago it did not really seem to me it would go that quick...
For the DRC side, the findings, which I suppose are based on the sophisticated methodology and thorough individual experience of the group members, are striking. One question though remains largely unanswered in your post and other sources: How far are Ntaganda and Nkunda integrated into M23? Now evidence seems to have certified their actual presence (as you wrote, in meetings etc.) but is there any hint (i.e. in the addendum) on their position and amount of influence?
Further, I am still wondering why it may reach up the Kabarebe? I would have thought he and other guys are too smart to get their own hands into that and rather delegate to lower-ranked people...
Then, on one of the questions you raised: Why is Rwanda doing this? - I wrote a speculative piece on the possibility of a preemptive anti-Kayumba manœuvre, but actually I think now I have been putting too much emphasis. My argument on the different rebel groups that may form a new alliance with his support might be a possible option, but some information is contradicting it. Still, all that, it might be a partial explanation? The ever-cited FDLR threat would be an absurd argument now given the weakened status and allegations of ex-FDLR being integrated to FARDC. Maybe also behavioural reasons play a role, such as a revived control reflex that is periodically increasing and lowering down again? That sounds maybe a bit naive, but we may not know if it is not influencing the issue too.
So in the end, I agree with the questions you stated, Jason, and add two more I consider important: Will there be any substantial, meaning action-oriented reaction by the DRC government, and what will anti-Rwandan populations, militias, and powerbrokers do out of the report?

Marc Hofer said...

Why is Rwanda doing this ?
I wonder if the fact that many Rwandaphones consider the Kivus as "Tutsi heartland" are actually willing to go a long way to get this area under the "protection" of Rwanda itself. Maybe its a big ideological question, which is also connected to some economical perks of course. That would also explain some irrational behavior from the Rwandan side during the last couple of years. When we link certain situations to emotional issues, people start to behave funny and irrational ( humankinds history is proof of that enough ). Just a thought...

Anonymous said...

The question that matters for the Congolese people is: What now? It it just a “déjà vu”?
Well, I may be going against the grain but my view is that the current context is particularly propitious for ending this 15-year Holocaust of Congolese people. All the actors of this sinister soap opera are now corned, exposed and out of any further deceptive tricks.

(1) For Rwanda, it is sadly the “end of innocence”. Because of the irresponsibility, cupidity and gratuitous arrogance of the Kigali despots, Rwanda is now synonymous with the “real engineer of violence and instability” in the region and no longer that victim of 1994 genocide. The world has finally established that the Kigali junta is truly just a bunch of “compulsive liars cum deniers” ,who can never be trusted. The fact is, Kagame is not prepared to see the African Great Lakes region enjoy peace and prosperity for all its inhabitants. The real decisive variable in this equation is the Tutsi people; they need to choose between a selfish, power-drunk and shortsighted leadership versus their survival and harmonious cohabitation with “others”.
(2) The DRC government is corned too. Whether or not complicit with the enemy, they know now that their turpitudes, ambivalence and indecisions can’t be tolerated any longer. Thanks to the pressure from the Congolese and the IC, they seem to have yielded. If in the past, the dealings with Rwanda were a personalized secret affair by JK’s confidents (Gen. J Numbi), today the institutional representatives such as ministers and security people conduct them in the open. Rwanda is now told what it needs to hear (Mende, Tshibanda) . The parliament asks the uncomfortable questions. The reform of FARDC is no longer a taboo, as it is now spearheaded by FARDC themselves (refer to Gen. Etumba message to def.min. L. Ntambo). The acid test is the end of instability in Kivus, starting with the defeating of M23 gang. Anything less is unacceptable.
(3) As for MONUSCO, though the first critic of their indolence, I just naively maybe think that Mr. Roger Meece has to be encouraged to realize in this last mandate of MONUSCO what he has publicly declared. They know they have run out of excuses, they should now effectively support the FARDC to finally eradicate the militias, especially M23 and FDLR.

So Congolese people, it is not a time to cry over spilt milk. This is not a child play; this is a struggle to defend our land and our people. The enemy stands to lose a lot, so they will fight hard. Let’s fight harder.


Anonymous said...

Why Rwanda is doing this?

@Jason, I think you are too naive to trust RDF when during meetings they tell you that secession of Kivu is not feasible or realistic..... Everything that they have done so far prove the contrary. You should trust what they tell themselves during their closed door meetings, when they know that no Muzungu will be there to report.
Have you never thought that they could use you as well? Always saying things that they know will keep their true hidden motives hidden?

I am more and more starting to believe that this all conflict is a racial conflict, when we look at just what is happening in the ground without hearing politics, it becomes clear, at least to me, that the Kivu are considered as "tutsi heartland" and Kagame regime does not want to leave it under DRC sovereignty.

I am not astonished that James Kaberebe is directly involved, all the Rwandese I have been talking to in the Rwandese army and security services have told me that James has directly and personally overseen ALL operations in Congo. Just that before this report I had no evidence to corroborate that.

My question though is what is Kabila role in this? He is aware of all of this for a long time, he personally negotiated these deals with Rwandese and if it was not for the International community, Ntaganda would be continuing rulling the hills of Kivu. I have also heard that Kabila's loyalty toward Congo has never always been pristine.... But I think I will have to wait for the next GoE report to have confirmation of this.....Or to wait for the Congolese government reaction, if they do not drum up support and make noise around this report their loyalty toward Congolese people should seriously be questioned....

To finish, I must say that this report has shaken most of my belief in this conflict. It confirmed a lot of things that I have been hearing for a long time. These experts should have had a lot of courage to fight having it out.

blaise said...

Nobody seems to find it curious that our intelligence service is always late to realize things or to put two and two together. Maybe they should get mr Leta out of Makala.
I will have hope that the GOe report will provide more information about other criminals networks profiting from the war(Ouganda-Burundi-Tanzanie).
What Rwanda is doing? What is good for Rwandans. They are on a ticking time bomb : big army need to operate, how long the reconciliation post gacaca will last?

Anonymous said...

For those favoring the racial roots of the conflict although it is in french it is interesting piece from Colette Brackman, it says that Rwandese officials call Tutsi leaders in DRC to participate to the M23 rebellion because and only because of "Tutsi solidarity" , the "divisionism" for which Kagame is imprisoning in Rwanda is exported in DRC:


Le ministre souligne aussi que la communauté rwandophone congolaise, au nom de laquelle les mutins d’hier et d’aujourd’hui prétendent combattre, a bénéficié de nombreuses mesures d’intégration, tant au sein de l’armée que des institutions politiques et que le rapatriement de réfugiés congolais tutsis se trouvant au Rwanda a été entamé, supervisé par une commission tripartite à laquelle participe le HCR..

En dépit de ces efforts d’intégration, de ce refus de toute discrimination, il souligne que « nous avons les preuves qu’au Rwanda, de hauts responsables téléphonent à des représentants des Tutsis congolais, militaires et politiques, pour leur demander de soutenir les mutins du M23, et cela sur base de la solidarité ethnique !

Autrement dit le divisionnisme, banni au Rwanda, est exporté au Congo ! »

Ces affirmations du ministre nous avaient été confirmées sur le terrain, à Goma, voici quelques semaines, et il apparaissait que des chefs de communauté, des notables tutsis recevaient régulièrement des appels provenant du Rwanda, leur demandant, au nom de la solidarité entre rwandophones, de soutenir les mutins du M23.

« Nous avons une liste des appels… précise M. Tshibanda, tandis que des responsables de la sécurité assuraient qu’ils redoublaient de vigilance afin qu’aucun « meurtre inexpliqué » de ressortissants tutsis congolais ne soit commis. De tels crimes en effet donneraient de la substance aux prophéties autoréalisatrices du Rwanda où la ministre des Affaires étrangères Louise Mushikwabo a déjà évoqué les risques accrus désormais encourus par les « cousins » tutsis congolais…Des risques dont la prévention justifierait une intervention militaire plus directe…


Anonymous said...

Hi Jason,

This is Kanchana, an intern at the Jatukik Providence Foundation. JPF works to help the DRC through a number of initiatives. We have heard great things about your book, have read your blog, and follow you on Twitter. You seem very knowledgeable about the origins and grassroots nature of the conflict in the DRC continuing today. I would like to speak to you about something, and I would really appreciate it if you could email me back at


Anonymous said...

The truth about Eastern DRC caused instability is now out in open. We can't just sit down and complain. Military action is needed to cruch all the armed groups starting with M23, FDLR and all the other fake groups created by the enemies of our nation. One specific demand from the civil society(CS)in Goma is to send them at least 1 USD in support of the national army (see link below). Unlike politicians, the CS is reliable. If you can, please send them your donation through your own safe channels.

Elie M.

Anonymous said...

finnaly everthing is crystal least we the poor paysans know what we are being killed for and by that rebellion is legitimate since congo is a failed state..

Rich said...

Jason -

Why is Rwanda doing this?

I think that's an interesting question and another way to approach it will be to try and understand kagame's own behaviour in relation to his country and indeed the DRC.

When JK took power in 2001 if there is something he had to learn fast it was just how come his father LDK who managed to dodge Mobutu’s sophisticated persecution machine for almost 32 years and yet ended up being killed by people who had some kind of connections with Rwanda/kagame?

The relationship between PK and JK since as far back as 2001 was that, PK has been like the noose that sustains a condemned/JK. Getting out of that noose was never going to be easy for JK especially when him/JK, the person about to be hanged, has his feet not firmly planted on the table (depleted legitimacy).

Judging from recent statements, it can be said that PK is behaving exactly like a bully who is prepared to hurt, blackmail or more to keep his prey under his control.

Why do I say this?

1. Only a few days ago, PK boasted about how he was privy by western diplomats regarding the possibility of overseeing a coup plot against JK. That’s a typical blackmail I used to hear from bullies in schools’ playground.

2. Today, I’m hearing that the Rwandan delegation to the Joint Verification Team decided to include the FDLR issue (as to say FARDC are now using FDLR at the front line against M23) in the Terms of Reference of today’s meeting in Goma.

3. Rwanda has often banked on his military reputation to feed its credential when it comes to bid for UN peacekeeping missions. One of the ways to garnish its CV will be, for instance, to wage wars and win them with ‘panache’ and the DRC with its dysfunctional and infiltrated army gives him that golden opportunity.

4. To that can be added the many revelations from the GoE addendum where it is reported, for instance, that Rwanda has always insisted for impunity regarding people like bosco ntaganda regardless of the wrongs they’ve done in the region.

Brief, I think we have a case of a dictator who is willing to gamble the future of an entire region to satisfy his own extremist ego.

My suggestions:

1. I think a coalition of moderate tutsi and hutu, in Rwanda, is long overdue to provide a viable alternative to this dangerous and divisive vision kagame is trying to promote not only in Rwanda but in the whole region.

2. Kagame needs to be told that there are millions of people who love the tutsis and will live with them in harmony in even if you are not around to protect them.

3. The UN must find alternative countries to provide peacekeeping forces should Rwanda be removed from that duty.

4. Ntaganda and anyone involved with M23 at least at senior level must be indicted as war criminals since they are providing protection to a criminal.

I'm not a diplomat so please, don't expect me (d'y aller par le dos de la cuillere).

If anything, the arrogance from kigali is literally redicalising a few of us. We will fight even harder as muanacongo put it.


Rich said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Rich said...

Sorry here is a good format -

In case you are interested to find out what was the mood at today's Joint Verification Team between DRC and rwanda, here are some photos that say more about it.


Anonymous said...

Link to the addendun good read, please share it extensively:

Anonymous said...

Great analysis..
However, I would like to dispute what some people keep claiming that Rwanda-phone(whatever that means) are very keen to see Kivu a heartland of Tutsi under Rwanda Protection. What a load of Rubbish!! I'm a Congolese Tutsi and a patriot, All my family from Rutshuru to Masisi think the same way-its very painful when criminals such as Kagame keep using our name to commit genocide against my fellow Congolese.
80% of Congolese Tutsi that criminal Paul kagame and his crew of genocidals claim to protect, have been languishing in refugee camps around the great lakes for donkey years, and nothing has been done to help them.
Now, who's fooling who??
We Know what we want-We are Congolese and not Banyarwanda-Joseph Kabila is our Leader and not genocidal Paul Kagame, Nkunda, Bosco Ntaganda, etc.
In-fact,Tutsi Born and bred in Congo, despise Tutsi fro Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania. We are very different culturally. The majority of Congolese Tutsi that stayed behind have either been killed or turned/ forced into Kagame' criminal ring i.e. Nkundabatware, etc.
A Congolese Tutsi would never entertain the idea of balkanising Congo....
Nuff said!

Anonymous said...

@ Anonymus June 28, 2012 2:57 PM

This is the first time I read such a stand from a Congolese Tutsi brother or sister. It is encouraging and we would like more of these positions against those who speak in your names. As Congolese, we all need to fight against any armed groups local or foreign and for a strong, as well as prospeous homeland for all the ethnic/tribes/people of DRC.

Rich said...

Anon JUNE 28, 2012 12:37 PM -

Many thanks for the link to the document. Much appreciated.


blaise said...

@ Rich
Nice pics, James K. looks like he will explode,lol.

blaise said...

This add will make an excellent movie!
What's interesting here is the constant meddling of Rwanda's nationals in the exacerbation of ethnic division while bolstering about Rwanda's ethnic virginity.
I have to reiterate again my sadness about the lack of professionalism from our intelligence service. It would have been great to have those pictures of boots and movements.
I can't wait to see if Rwanda can refute point by point. Doesn't look it will happen since they are making new accusation instead of refuting the allegation.
Personally I didn't find the ammunition and arms displays a slam dunk since the cndp caches never been totally emptied when they did the integration. But the txt messages are powerful too. I think the government can obtain all the info about the exchanges (phone and txt) if they want to.
I was always puzzled how Makenga and other was able to go from Goma and Bukavu so easily to the masisi, with arms and ammo, without being stop. I was thinking about internal complicity but now we see that where the black hands is.
The Fardc should really start cutting any loose ends and dismantle all those mafia that profit from the war. Arrest those shady businessmen, take all their properties to deter other to follow suite. Follow the money!.

blaise said...

Is it a coincidence that 11 rwanda nationals are cited in the report and a week later Rwanda government was talking about 11 innocent "businessmen" were tortured by the Fardc before being return to Rwanda? Same people?

blaise said...

let's find Djo Munga for the M23 movie,lol

Anonymous said...

How to explain and understand the arrogance from Kigali?

I would make a reference to the attitude of Irsaël towards UNSC - resolutions. They laugh about it and they always did.

I think one must realize that as long as Rwanda will profit of the same protection from the USA as Israël, one must lose illusions that UNSC or USA/GB will make change the idea's or attitude of Kagame.

I do really not believe that breaking off the Kivu's is not realistic in these conditions. Where the frontiers of Israël from today thinkable in 1948?

The real enemy Congo is confronting is the USA.

Anonymous said...

Why is Rwanda doing this? My opinion is that Rwanda never seriously thought of loosening the grip it has on the Kivus. There were many signs that the so called "integration" of ex-CNDP in the FARDC was only a posture, such as the recurrent indiscipline of these troops, their insistence to have top ranking positions in the FARDC structure while nothing really justified this, particularly in South Kivu where their presence was scarce before their integration, their obvious and public signs of not willing to be really integrated either with the other FARDC or with the population... I can also mention the ever rising tensions and renewed negotiations with Kinshasa each time they were unhappy with a decision, and the ever continuing "minerals in exchange of weapons" trade towards Makenga's house by the lake that blew a few months ago, making collateral damages in the RDF and FARDC ranks without touching him. With the recent death of Katumba Mwake, and the ongoing Kayumba paranoia, the perspective of losing Ntaganda without a B plan in place was too much for Rwanda.
If my theory is somehow close to reality, they probably didn't expect the reaction of Kinshasa and of the international community to be so strong. Kigali has always counted on relatively malleable, if not manipulatable Kinshasa authorities, and on the uselessness of the international community. They were probably hoping for a classic CNDP scenario, where they show their teeth for a few weeks, time to reorganize, then sit down and obtain political concessions in exchange for cease fire when ready, and ways before the always slow IC could blink. It actually could have happened so, maybe the only reason why it didn't is timing, as this all unfolded when the GoE was preparing its report. Kigali could have easily pushed away the allegations of HRW alone, they are used to do so since years and must have tons of internal jokes about it. Fighting both HRW and what seems to be a very documented GoE report will prove to be much harder. Add to this a Congolese government looking to gain more credibility with his citizens after the elections fiasco - and how easier than the nationalist move to concentrate energies on the now traditional enemy- the UN already criticized for its passiveness in Syria and who could find a good reason enough here to be more pushy than usual on DRC, an Obama approaching electoral terms and probably not willing to be embarrassed by an undefendable posture on Eastern DRC... I'd say the sky is bright blue for advocacy groups and networks!
Because, from where I stand, what matters is what happens next. I see 2 scenarios here:
- The usual "booh bad Rwanda" from the IC followed by the "wasn't me" of Rwanda, followed by a couple of diplomatic drama, high profile offensives timely and civilian costly offensives in the East, if needed even going to a spot attack on Bukavu or Goma, political negotiations, back to where it all started.
- Advocacy groups using this rare opportunity where they are in a position to actually force everyone to face its responsibilities, ultimately sit around a table, and discuss durable solutions with serious indicators and monitoring mechanisms, mixing regional stability based on common interest togther with down-top approaches of reconciliation. If there is a right timing for this, it can't be better than today. I’m hoping our advocacy groups will see this opportunity, and manage to make the best of it to force this desired and needed curb in history. Yes, I know, I have a dream…


Anonymous said...

There are 2 fronts in this war: the external front led by Kagame and an internal front, our fith column, led by Kabila.

On the external front everything is said not much to add, the report and addendum are clear: Kagame is in an ethnic domination path on Kivu land.

I am more worried bybthe internal front. Why FARDC is weak, not paid, to the extent that civil society is collecting money for them (what does Kabila gvnmt). Why security service concerns are not taken into account. Why Kabila only use its presidential guard (that is the best armed forces of drc, altough im not sure....) to crash unarmed protester in kinshasa, or fight Goma but Kabila never sent this guard to fight in frontline?

Currently Diomi ndongala a figure of the extra parliemntary opposition has been taken by policemen to an unknown destination. Why, because he was preparing Tshisekedy participation to the support the troop catholic mess?

Kabila is behaving like the congolese do not have any rights in DRCand he is destroying the congolese society in the long run: congolese primary education has been destroid, public unjversities are far from what they were before. Right now, unjversity professor are not. Yet paid for the month of May, and we are ending june... and how much are they paid 500 usd in congolese franc....'au taux du jour' To be honest the real salary is 1000usd, and 500 usd is taken to pay a car credit...but that in its own is an entire story.....

Civil servant not paid either, roads worth 5 millions are built and paid 25 millions, and these same roads decay in less than a year.

Army is boiling and frustration is building up. They have the impression that the high comandment are the first traitors. There are rumors that Kabila is getting scared of the military fighting m23 and will never allow them to come back in kinshasa as they will be a menace to his regime. Why ? Because this troop trained by the belgium came from all the congoleses regions and are not as subordinated to him as is the mono color presidential guard. So you can cry for army reform, with Kabila in power it will never work.

After mor than 10 years in power he is the first responsible of the chaos in the army. He is following mobutu and will never accept a republican army, it is too dangerous for him. Just read reports of human rights watch on drc and all others ngo, national and international.

We do not deserve Kabila who is destroying our country and who is unable to have a clear vision, the only thing he knows is to embezzle millions, with his croony dan getler and president zuma nephew. Destroy our education, destroy the congolesewho do not think like him, and destroy the lives of our soldiers dying in the front line.

Kabila is our trojan horse, he must also be dealt with.

Anonymous said...

Link to addendum is dead???? where to get a new one?

Anonymous said...

I was reading the addendum when the link went dead. Same question : where to get a new one ?

Anonymous said...

The addendum is out there, they can break links as they want, like the hydra a new head will pop up:

here is a new link:

Please download it and share it as well, dont know how long it will stay up.

Anonymous said...

@ Ano. at JUNE 28, 2012 2:57 PM

I agree with Rich. It is about time that Tutsi people snatch back their destiny from the gun-wielding hands of the merchants of racial hatred and death (M23-CNDP). Plz, just show a sincere and undivided loyalty to the Congolese family and, believe me, the rest of us will be the first to champion your protection and concerns. Even more important, Rwandan Tutsi people should realize that the obsession by the messianic Kigali rulers to weaken a rising Congo, is ruining their future. In fact a strong, predictable and allied Congo is the surest of security for all, especially them.

For the resilient Congo can endure any blow, we will always survive as demonstrated in the last 15 years. But Tutsi-Rwanda is the most vulnerable. Kagame has overstretched this rope; so if or rather when it snaps, it will be an unprecedented hecatomb. U c, the worst might still be to come. Peace!


blaise said...

Rwanda is counterattacking. It's funny that all those accusation come after the fact, they never complained before.

Rich said...

Alternative link to the addendum -


Rich said...

blaise -

I used to think they were 'smarter' than that!

It is simply laughable to see them getting lost in a kind of hysterical crisis and instead of making the effort to come clean, they prefer to multiply smoke screens.

Their re-herring won't wash this time round. Unlike rwanda, DRC is not a 'divisionist' country.


blaise said...

and someone in Uganda is talking nonsense.

I wonder why Rwanda didn't publicize it's counter arguments since that was the reason given for not publishing this addendum. Instead, they are multiplying nonsense.
It seems to me that they are doing their best to discredit the DRC government hence shifting the blame. That's sick!

blaise said...

just wondering if those new defections are not based on the expectation that kinshasa will balked and new promotion will occur.

Anonymous said...

The arrogance from Kigali can only be compared to the arrogance of Israël. Israël violates already many years many resolutions of the UNSC. The only reason Israël can do this is because of the protection by the USA that put a veto in the UNSC every time there is a resolution that really takes measures against criminal behavior of Israël.
Doesn’t Rwanda has the same sort of protection?
If yes, it will be necessary to know the real power that is trying to hold the DRC down, is the USA.

Anonymous said...

I always have a hard time explaining the comparison of Israel history with Rwanda. The overstrech is misleading at best and needs to be revisited for accuracy. Without being an expert, my read is that the holocaust of the jews took place in Europe and was never a result of a war waged by the israelites away from their land. Rwanda's events took place in their own country as a result of a confrontation between two ethnic groups inside Rwanda. Before the holocaust,the jews people had lost their land and were all over the world. As a consequence, the International Community convened to return the jews to their land which was in the meantime inhabited by arabs. Hence the ongoing conflict. Rwandans have never lost their land. A portion of its people were refugees in neighboring countries and fought their way back to their country. Where is the link and why the intentional confusion? A different explanation of Rwanda's leadership behavior needs to be found. It has nothing to do with Israel.

Zach Alfred said...

Hi Jason, would like to see if you may be interested in discussing this on The Stream ( Let me know the best way to contact you. zachary [dot] alfred [at] aljazeera [dot] net.


blaise said...

We can't have enough:

congo man said...

It's time for people to stop comparing this crazy extremist Regime of PAUL KAGAME to israel. this regime is more like the minority suni regime of SADAM HUSSEIN of IRAQ. KAGAME behaves more like a SADAME HUSSEIN . his CONGO adventures are just like SADAM's IRAN and KOWEIT adventures. KAGAME needs to understand that he does not have the ability to redraw the map of CONGO and never he will. his dictatorship is just temporary he can dominate and scare the Rwandese people but not the Congolese.i will advise the tutsi people of both Rwanda and Congo to start listening to their brothers like KAYUMBA NYAMWASA ,MASUNZU...and all the smart TUTSIS who are looking to the future and understand that KAGAME's behavior is undermining the future of his own people. KAGAME has been poisoning the future of his peoples and if they do not wake up now and start looking to the future ,i think they will and up paying a very heavy price in the future for the sins of KAGAME,NTAGANDA,NKUNDA,KABARERE,MAKENGA,MUTEBUSI and all the Criminals from UGANDA who have been poisoning the Great lakes region and poisoning the future of all their people.i will ask all the Kinyarwanda speakers(rwandophones) of RUCHURU and MASSISI how much improvement KAGAME, NTAGANDA and KABARERE have made to their lives ?if they are smart and they want the future in the Congo shall turn their back on this criminals before its too late because RWANDA is a ticking BOMB that sooner or later will explode but the good future is in the GRAND CONGO. time will tell.

congo man said...

@ blaise
i agree with you.i just don't know how can hundreds of people defect from Bukavu and go all the way to Masisi undetected . i think they still more war profiteering mafiosis in the FARDC and unless those peoples are dealt with ,we are not yet out of the woods.i know the M23 are a doomed movement but the infiltration was deep and they still more cleaning to be done.i wouldn't trust those deputes from areas like RUCHURU ...and some former RCD peoples... who are in KIN and i think more eyes shall be on them.
i don't think all Rphones are traitors or spies but i think most are.

Rich said...

Congoman -

Ref # "i just don't know how can hundreds of people defect from Bukavu and go all the way to Masisi undetected"

I may be wrong but I think this is where it is said that the rwandan territory is being used by M23. it is very easy to go from Bukavu to Rutshuru via the rwandan territory than the DRC.

MONUC does that countless times and apparently yesterday they were refused passage on rwandan territory. Stange that MONUC can be refused passage when M23 are allowed to do that.


congo man said...

My brother i have never seen people who believe in propaganda like the Rwandese. the only City in the entire Rwanda is Kigali, a very small city with only one 2 lanes road,surrounded by Banana farms and slams...but most Rwandese believe everything they see from the only TV CHANEL that their dictator allow them to watch and many of them think that Rwanda is the most developed nation in Africa even though most are jobless and live on less than 1$ a day.this is the reason why they cant think about their future or destiny.and you need to understand that the machete wielding thing is deep in their DNA .how can 400 tribes with 400 different languages live side by side peacefully for centuries inside the CONGO, but in Rwanda only 2 tribes who speaks the same language cant live together without macheteing each ether? i don't have the answers but i think that machete culture is deep inside our neighbor's DNA.

congo man said...

Thank you bros i forgot that you can take a boat on lake KIVU from Bukavu to North KIVU and avoid the road blocks.but i think they need to keep an aye on many former Bosco business partners who are still operating in the KIVU. i know that we are at war with the Rwandan army and the so called M23 defectors are a small number but the problem is that most of them are leaving with reliable intelligence about the FARDC.that's why i think it would'v been good to keep them out of this offensive.we have thousands of real Congolese soldiers and i think it was just a bad idea to include some former CNDP or any Rdphone in this offensive.

Rich said...

Congoman -

You are right, in terms of loyalty, we still have many moles, opportunists as well as adventurers within the FARDC. I'm aware that extensive rotations of troops engaged on the theater were ongoing but I guess this is not a straight forward operation with an army like the FARDC and the other problem is when you bring in troops from far away, with new commanders etc... knowing the terrain will be an extra handicap before they are up to the task.

I guess, at the end of the day, we will learn our lesson the hard way and only God knows how this will be before we get there.

me thinks ...


Anonymous said...

Sorry Congoman, didn't knew that you are not aware of crimes of zionist regime against Palestinian people.

As for Sadam Hussein: do you know That the USA have tricked him by saying that his conflict with Kuwait weren't their business, and once he had invade Kuwait, they presented this as an international crime and took it as a pretexte to launch the aression against Iraq?

see here:

I could compare this to the words of ambassador Entwitsle in Goma saying «Nous soutenons les efforts [déployés par le gouvernement congolais et ses partenaires] contre le M23. N’importe quel gouvernement au monde a le devoir d’anéantir les mutins. Vous avez absolument raison d’anéantir ces mutins»

I hope there will be no war and that combination of diplomatic and military action against M23 will be enough to restore peace. But in case there would come a war between Rwanda and Congo, we will se how the US will act.

Anonymous said...

Thanx Congoman for that insightful clarification (Kagame’s Rwanda = Saddam Husain’s Irak and not Ben Gurion’s Israel. Full Stop.). Yes, Ano. at June 29, 2012 1:34 PM , Congolese and all people of good will are very perturbed by the unjustifiably immoral American policy of backing tyrant Kagame and ignoring Congolese genocide in the last 15 years. But my personal view is that the Congo-Rwanda policy in Washington has less to do with “power of guilt” or rwanda’s few polimen in Darfur as we are often told. This policy has been hijacked by the rascals (Madeleine Albright, Herman Cohen …) who serve as the interface of the int’l banking and mining vultures in the American political system. Yet our American friends know now how backing a tyrant (Saddam Hussain, Hosni Mubarak,Pinoche, Mobutu or Kagame) always ends.

But things have changed now. Unlike in the previous agrressions (Mutebisi, Nkunda), now Congolese back home and around the world are up to defend our land and people. The IC has finally seen through the lies that were peddled against us. Amrican people themselves are questioning many things. So the enemy is in serious trouble.


Anonymous said...

The enemy is in serious trouble indeed.

And American people are good people, at least 99% of them. But here is a tactical argumentation one will hear coming weeks in defence of the Kagame-regime in anglo-american press:

Rich said...

Lambert Mende Omalanga -

"La tentative délibérée du Rwanda de donner une coloration politico-ethnique à un groupe criminel reconnu comme tel par l’ensemble de la Communauté internationale alors que la classe politique congolaise dans son ensemble et toutes les communautés ethniques qui ont en partage les deux provinces du Kivu sans aucune exception la condamnent, est dangereuse pour la paix et la sécurité dans la région.

Le Gouvernement déclare, pour que nul désormais ne fasse semblant de l’oublier, que la responsabilité pénale des actes cruels commis par Ntaganda et ses affidés est strictement personnelle. Vouloir faire croire qu’il existerait on ne sait quelle accusation d’un crime collectif à l’encontre d’une quelconque communauté du Kivu est pure aberration. C’est le lieu pour nous d’insister auprès de nos partenaires de la direction politique rwandaise pour qu’ils cessent de chercher par des insinuations déplacées, à ramener à la surface les atavismes ethniques d’une époque révolue et dont la région n’a que trop souffert.

Il n’y a à ce jour aucune confrontation inter-ethnique entre des populations congolaises qui vivent au Kivu. Seules les forces négatives et ceux qui leur apportent soutien et assistance à partir de l’extérieur continuent à instrumentaliser ces pauvres arguments pour semer le chaos qui fait durer leur projet de cueillette sans contrepartie des ressources naturelles congolaises. Il n’est pas inutile de rappeler aux apôtres de la banalisation du terrorisme la vanité de ce qui tient lieu de revendications de la bande, à Ntaganda et Ruzandiza, alias Makenga.
Lorsqu’un général de brigade et un colonel revendiquent « des grades », lorsqu’un parti qui a dans ses rangs des ministres, des élus nationaux et provinciaux réclame l’intégration dans la vie politique, lorsqu’un seigneur de guerre tue, pille et commet d’autres crimes contre l’humanité pour appuyer une demande d’amnistie pour d’autres crimes du même genre, il n’y a aucune rationalité sinon des faux alibis pour pérenniser une situation conflictuelle pour des raisons inavouées. Ces revendications de la bande à Ntaganda sont, nous l’avons dit, creuses et fantaisistes, et nous osons espérer que nos collègues rwandais nous écouterons à ce sujet.

Nous condamnons très fermement la réactivation des groupes armés nationaux et des alliances contre nature avec les criminels des FDLR initiées cyniquement par les mêmes auteurs intellectuels des crimes dont Ntaganda et sa bande se rendent coupables. La présence parmi les éléments rwandais faits prisonniers près de Runyonyi de quelques éléments FDLR rapatriés en bonne et due forme au Rwanda en est une autre illustration. Le but semble être de rendre ingouvernable et invivable les provinces du Nord et du Sud-Kivu."

Rich said...

Addendum -

Here is another to the french version (NON-OFFICIAL) translation.

Please do share and save your own copies in case the link are disabled.

Faites-en une large diffusion.


Anonymous said...

Rwanda likes to compares itself to Israel but they are not the same. No matter your views on military occupation in the West Bank, there is no arguing that within its own borders Israel is a consolidating democracy. Rwanda is not. Look at Freedom House for the facts if you are not convinced, but in terms of opposition rights, freedom of press, assembly and speech there is absolutely no comparison between Israel and Rwanda.
Also, Israel is not using proxy forces to violate sovereignty. There is a distinction that needs to be made here. Military action is the conducted by the Israeli military and therefore is checked by the appropriate authorities.( you can make the argument for the Christian militias in Lebanon in 1982, not that Arab world has ever drawn any distinction between Israel and the militias when it came to blame in Sabra and Shatilla)

Anonymous said...

After Somalia, AU must intervene in the world’s richest country – Congo

For me the African Union’s next rescue mission after Somalia is very clear; it is the so-called Democratic Republic Congo.
There is no point continuing to pretend that the government of DRC is capable of running the country. Fifty-two years after Independence, the world’s richest country in natural resources is the worst to live in.
If the Congolese just remained poor amid their excessive wealth, without affecting others, it would be okay, if that was their chosen lifestyle. But their instability is affecting neighbours and we are not amused.
The kleptocratic Casanova who mismanaged Congo/Zaire for three decades was removed by neighbours Rwanda and Uganda over a decade ago because of the threat he posed to the two countries.
However, there were disagreements with the man they installed to manage the country, and a war that sucked in several countries ensued. Uganda and Rwanda left DRC but the threat to their security remained.
Now the AU has at least three urgent reasons to intervene militarily in the DRC and several advantages to gain by doing so.
First, some 70 million ordinary African people in DRC need to be rescued from absence of effective government.
Since the senile dictator was removed over a decade ago, younger “leaders” have shown no ability to lead the people of the world’s richest country into living meaningful lives. It is not clear to me why they even organise elections and contest for power — to do what with it?
Secondly, DRC’s neigbours need their peace. The inability of the “government” there to police its territory makes it possible for criminals from countries as far away as Pakistan to organise mischief from DRC’s forests.
Thirdly, the dignity of the black man is at stake. As the long as the world’s most mineral-rich country remains the home of its poorest citizens, it remains difficult for us to convince the rest that there is nothing wrong with African heads.
The continent must step in and stop the general hopelessness in Congo. The Congolese people can keep their government if they want it but a situation must be created for it to deliver basic services and security and develop infrastructure.
There are advantages for the AU in moving into Congo militarily. First of all, the country is very rich. It can pay for the intervention. So the AU does not need to seek financial assistance from outside to stabilise Congo.
Second, by enabling the Congolese people to start exploiting their wealth for their own good, a very rich nation shall develop on the continent and trade opportunities shall accrue for everybody else.
Third, Congo’s minerals and hydroelectric potential can power development on the continent and make the Congolese people very rich.
I have attended conferences where there were Congolese scientists. They are brilliant people. They may not carry iPads and other gizmos like their counterparts from other countries, but they know their stuff.
The problem of Congo is one of governance, there is nothing wrong with its people. Even if other countries have governance issues, Congo’s are extreme. The AU must step in as soon as possible.

Joachim Buwembo is a Knight International fellow for development journalism. E-mail:

blaise said...

@ anonym JUNE 30, 2012 9:14 AM,
I never thought I will ever say that but I agree with
All the gov has to do is to make it a individual problem not a group thing. Why can't they arrest all those people who are fomenting rebellion? It's in the penal code, close to treason. If they have to reintegrate anybody, it has to be on merit and out of Kivus. It's a step in the right direction to protect anybody on the Congolese soil. The mob should not be the one calling the shot.

Another reason Kigali has interest to help for peace. Did they realize that an economic boom in NK and SK will benefit their country?Those sorcerer's apprentice militarism won't get them anywhere.

blaise said...

Anonymous said...

@ anonymous 1:00pm
I repeat: every comparison has its limits and in every comparison you can look at the differences to say the comparison is not correct.


Israel violates UNSC-resolutions since 1948. See here:

It is also very comfortable to be judge and accused at the same time. Look at the people who direct Freedom House and you’ll see why they declare that Israel is « a democratic state » :

Kagame and Sharon are two criminals with blood on their hands. And natruurally there are a lot of differences between them. But equal criminals they are!

Anonymous said...

US rebuking Rwanda... Are they sincere this time? Let's wait and see.

Elie M.

Anonymous said...

Sorry, the real declaration of Nuland is more pleasant for Rwanda then this article in Businessweek suggest:

Rich said...

Elie M -

That's an interesting step forward however, why the statement seems to stop just there?

I would like to think the US has a zero tolerance approach in terms of implementing its laws. By that I mean, why don't they go as far as using the Public Law 109-456 (formerly senate bill 109-2125 ) ?

I won't get over excited as long as the US will be happy to simply ask rwanda to 'stop to "halt and prevent the provision of support" instead of implementing its own laws.

Can anyone enlighten us as to why the US is not going as far as implementing the above law?


Anonymous said...

@ Rich

That was the vintage Mende that we would have liked. At last they are waking up. Mieux vaut tard que jamais.

Even the Mysterious JK is finally pointed against Rwanda’s toxic neighbourhood.

onduite par Julien Paluku, Gouverneur du Nord Kivu, la délégation de la province en proie à la guerre depuis bientôt deux mois à été reçu jeudi 28 juin 2012 par le Chef de l'Etat en sa résidence dite GLM. Membres du Barza intercommunautaire, membres de la société civile et cadres politiques de la province meurtrie , voilà la composition de la délégation forte de 35 personnes qui a déféré avec Joseph Kabila pour faire un tour d'horizon sur toute l'actualité de l'heure.
Invités par le Chef de l'Etat, les délégués du nord kivu ont suivi avec beaucoup d'attention les efforts du gouvernement congolais tant sur le plan militaire,diplomatique que politique.
L'Autorité suprême a signifié clairement que Bosco Ntaganda est actuellement le mal qui ronge la RDC et qu'en conséquence, il ne s'agira pas simplement d'anéantir son mouvement le M23 mais aussi et surtout de l'arrêter en vue de répondre devant la justice des cruautés commises par lui et sa bande sur le sol congolais.
Aucun centimètre de la RDC ne sera laissé à personne, a martelé joseph kabila qui s'est dit confiant dans le travail réalisé sur terrain par les FARDC qui font face non seulement au mutins mais aux militaires rwandais dénoncés par plusieurs rapports, le dernier en date étant celui des experts des Nations Unies.
Le Président de la République a salué la position des Nations Unies qui n'ont pas hésité à pointer du doigt le Rwanda voisin dans ses manœuvres de déstabilisation de l'Est de la RDC.
Le Rwanda a ses problèmes qui lui sont propres, la RDC a les siens qui lui sont également propres et les deux pays ont des problèmes en communs, a renchéri Joseph Kabila citant en exemple les FDLR et les M23 parmi les menaces communes.
On n'a ni peur du Rwanda pour l'accuser ni de la peine à fournir des preuves pour enfoncer le Rwanda qui est totalement impliqué dans les plans dangereux contre la RDC, a fini par lâcher Joseph Kabila plus rassurant qu'auparavant.
Nous avons neuf voisins dont un seul d'entre eux pose problème avec la RDC, a souligné le commandant suprême des forces armées de la RDC. Doit- on dire que c'est la RDc qui est pourtant en paix avec les huit autres qui ne sait pas gérer ses relations de bon voisinage, s'est interrogé Kabila?
À 41 ans, Joseph Kabila a rassuré qu'il ne tolérera pas qu'apres lui des conflits vieux comme le temps continuent à persister à l'Est de la RDC. Sa plus grande contribution sera de participer activement à la résolution de tous les maux qui rongent les Grands Lacs que certains entretiennent délibérément pour survivre sur la scène internationale.
Avant de terminer, le Président de la république en a appelé à la population pour sa mobilisation générale en vue de soutenir les FARDC qui n'ont pas d'autres choix que de ramener la victoire. Et pour cela, un recrutement au sein des forces armées sera bientôt lancé, cette fois- ci non pas avec les anciens groupes armés mais avec des dignes fils du pays ayant la passion du Congo et capables de défendre la République sans tergiversation ni trahison.
In fine, Joseph Kabila a remercié la Monusco pour l'appui apporté aux FARDC et a prié instamment la population à lui offrir toute la collaboration.
"Nous devons être engagés avec passion ", a conclu Joseph Kabila qui a, en même temps, annoncé la mise en place à Goma d'une TASK FORCE dans les heures qui suivent.



congo man said...

Thank-you muanacongo for that link ,I hop Jk continue on that tone,we are tired of moderation ,It's time to start treating the RWANDA for what it is (enemy ).

Anonymous said...

@annonymous 10:33 PM
In terms of Rwanda and Israel comparison:
Yes these differences really do matter because one country is essentially a dictatorship while the other is a free society (I'm excluding zones of military operation here E.g. not the West Bank)

No I don't agree with you on the US enables Rwanda and Israel to violate UNSC resolutions. First and foremost, Israeli foreign policy has always been to be under the wing of a world power: it is now the US. It was once the USSR and after that France. Like Rwanda it doesn't trust the UN or the international community at large and therefore would find someone else to veto for them if not the US per their foreign policy.

Secondly, you act like there are two countries in the world that have or currently violate UNSC resolutions. Turkey and Morocco are very close to Israel in terms of numbers of resolutions they have violated or currently are. Turkey also has similar US protection (you forget about them for some reason)
Additionally, non-state actors (such as the Palestinian Authority) cannot be in violation of UNSC resolutions by definition even though they are and have been as much or more than Israel. In asymmetrical conditions one side will therefore be in violation of international law and the other won't: simply because they are incapable of doing so.
My point here is that you cite arrogance by the "zionist" government. I am citing geopolitical conditions. I am also citing the fact that the violation of UNSC resolutions is not exclusive to Rwanda and Israel but is seen in countries like Morocco, Turkey, and Indonesia. Something you have chosen to ignore. Are they also "arrogant"?

Anonymous said...

The major problem that faces congo is FARDC. PERIOD!
a nation is as good as its security agencies, topmost being the military. DRC lacks a professional military which will otherwise defend the country against armed aggression and wipe out the numerous internal armed groups.

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