Painting by Cheri Samba

Lokuta eyaka na ascenseur, kasi vérité eyei na escalier mpe ekomi. Lies come up in the elevator; the truth takes the stairs but gets here eventually. - Koffi Olomide

Ésthetique eboma vélo. Aesthetics will kill a bicycle. - Felix Wazekwa

Thursday, February 21, 2013

Splits deepen within the M23

This blog post has been changed from its original version to remove the mention of a trip by Makenga and Bosco to Kigali; further research confirms that it probably never happened. 

Reports from various sources––the UN peacekeeping mission, M23 insiders, and the Congolese army––this afternoon suggest that the rift between Bosco Ntaganda and Sultani Makenga is deepening. Details are still vague, but it is clear that the long-standing tensions have escalated.

To recap: the two have been at loggerheads since the arrest of Laurent Nkunda in January 2009 by the Rwandan army and the subsequent nomination of Bosco Ntaganda as the head of the CNDP forces. Makenga was close to Nkunda, and never got along with Bosco, who built a clique around the officers who had served with him in Ituri––Innocent Zimurinda, Innocent Kaina (India Queen), adding to them Baudoin Ngaruye. They were known as the "Kimbelembele," (Forward-Forward) while Makenga's pro-Nkunda faction are the "Kifuafua." (Chest Out) Their styles are also different: Makenga is cautious and discrete, while Bosco is known to be thuggish, calling for hits against officers he suspects of being disloyal and organizing bank heists in broad daylight in Goma.

These tensions grew after the M23 took Goma. The movement was growing in prominence, and Bosco wanted to be sure to control it––two of his allies are in the political wing, President Jean-Marie Runiga and Executive Secretary Francois Rucogoza. His people were also able to win the promotion of Baudoin Ngaruye to the chief-of-staff position of the M23.

But Bosco's faction has grew nervous about the peace talks, feeling that they would be sidelined if there were a deal. Both Zimurinda and Bosco are on the UN sanctions list, Bosco is wanted by the ICC and has a $5 million award on his head, while India Queen is allegedly responsible for the killing of UN peacekeepers in Ituri. Makenga does not (yet) have any legal issues to contend with.

The departure from Goma also apparently caused friction, as Makenga confiscated a lot of the pillaged goods and punished some of the most deviant officers. Meanwhile, Makenga is said to be angered by the increasingly strict conditions of Nkunda's detention––while he was active during the early days of the M23 rebellion, he reportedly is difficult to reach these days.

Whatever the problem––and it is difficult to be sure, given distortions from all sides––these splits will almost certainly have an impact on the peace talks, both those in Kampala, as well as any potential talks in the context of the Framework Agreement. It could play out in various ways––if Bosco feels cornered, he might try to launch operations to pre-empt a peace deal that could cost him his head; there have already been reports of this possibility. And the Congolese could try to play both sides against each other (although the reported plan of issuing arrest warrants against both factions, including against Makenga and Ngaruye, would suggest otherwise).

À suivre.


Unknown said...

-Considérant les massacres à grande échelle qui ne font qu’accroître dans notre pays le Congo , surtout à l’Est dans le territoire de Rutshuru , où aujourd’hui les instruments des Présidents Paul Kagame et Joseph Kabila autoproclamés rebelles du M23 continuent de verser le sang des innocents;
-Ayant vu que les responsables ne sont rien d’autres que les étrangers ou les Congolais avides des richesses congolaises ;
-Ayant constaté que ces massacres ne diffèrent pas de ceux qui ont été perpértés dans le passé notamment en 1998 à KITONA et à KATINDO où une centaine de jeunes militaires ont été décimés, dont 80 officiers au grade de Sous-Lieutenant qui terminaient le cours de cadette , et 25 qui étaient avec le Lieutenant MUREKEZI à KATINDO , ou encore ceux de KISANGANI au moment des dissensions entre les armées rwandaises et ugandaises;
-Tenant compte des preuves tangibles qui confirment que les Généraux Bosco NTAGANDA et Sultan MAKENGA , à la tête de ces massacres ,ont reçu du Président Kagame des renforts en matériel et en hommes pour continuer de s’entretuer et ainsi paralyser les négociations en cours avec le Gouvernement de Kinshasa;
le Front Patriotique pour la Libération du Congo,FPLC en sigle,informe le public du monde entier de ce qui suit: 1.Toute personne selon ses capacités est prié de se lever pour dénoncer et condamner ces dissensions intestines qui viennent d’emporter une centaine de victimes dont plus de 15 officiers depuis le 24/02/2013,car ils’agit d’ une mauvaise semence qu’on est en train de semer et qui peut pousser partout ailleurs.
2.Tout Congolais est appelé à se garder d’être un instrument de tout opportuniste surtout celui dont les intérêts sont préjudiciables à la sécurité et à la souveraineté de notre pays.
3.Le FPLC reste attaché à la voie de l’unité et de la réconciliation de tous les citoyens sans discrimination éthnique,régionale,raciale,linguistique ou religieuse ,ainsi que celle du patriotisme et de la bonne cohabitation avec les pays voisins ,seule base de la paix durable au Congo qui guarantira le dévéloppement intégral dans toute la Région des Grands Lacs.
4.Le FPLC lance un nouvel appel aux bélligérants afin de déposer les armes et privilégier la voie du dialogue;donne une dernière mise en garde à ceux qui incitent à la haine et aux conflits dans la Région des Grands Lacs sous prétexte de protéger des groupes éthniques alors qu’en réalité ce sont leurs propres intérêts qu’ils cherchent ; réitère son ferme engagement à la lutte qu’il a amorçée jusqu’à la libération du Congo et de tous les Congolais.
Fait à Goma,le 04/03/2013
Le Président du FPLC
Le Général Gad NGABO

Unknown said...


-Considering the large-scale massacres which are increasing in DRC our country,especially in the eastern in RUTSHURU territory,where today the instruments of the Presidents KAGAME and KABILA self-proclaimed M23 rebels continue shedding the blood of innocents;

- Having seen that those who are at the base of these massacres are not others than foreigners or Congolese greedy of Congolese wealth;

-Having found that these massacres not differ from those that have been committed in the past, particularly in 1998 in KITONA and KATINDO, where a hundred young soldiers were decimated, among them 80 officers with rank of 2nd Lieutenant who were completing the minor course, and 25 who were with Lieutenant MUREKEZI in KATINDO, or those of KISANGANI during the dissensions among Rwandan and Ugandan armies;

-Taking into account the evidence confirming that Generals BOSCO NTAGANDA and Sultan MAKENGA, head of the killings, received reinforcements in men and equipment to continue killing each other in order to block the ongoing negotiations with the Kinshasa Government;

Patriotic Front for the Liberation of Congo, FPLC in acronym, informs the public of the world as follows:

1.Any person is requested according to his ability to stand up to denounce and condemn these dissensions who come to take a hundred victims with more than 15 officers from 24/02/2013 because it is a bad seed that is being sown and that can grow anywhere.

2. Every Congolese is called to avoid being an instrument of anyone who is searching his own interests especially detrimental to the security and sovereignty of our country.

3.The FPLC remains committed to the path of unity and reconciliation among all citizens without ethnic, regional, racial, linguistic or religious discrimination, as well as to the path of patriotism and good coexistence with neighboring countries, only base of lasting peace in Congo which will guarantee full development throughout the Great Lakes Region.

4.The FPLC appeals again with insistence to the belligerents to lay down their weapons and favor the path of dialogue, giving a final warning to those who incite to hatred and conflict in the Great Lakes region under the pretext of protecting ethnic groups whereas in reality it is their own interests they seek; reiterates its firm commitment to the fight he began until the Liberation of Congo and the Congolese people.

Done in GOMA, the 4th March 2013
The President of the FPLC
General Gad NGABO

Unknown said...


-Yakizingatiwa mauaji makubwa ambayo huzidi kuongezeka katika nchi yetu KONGO hasa katika mashariki wilayani RUTSHURU ambapo leo vyombo vya Marais Paul KAGAME na Joseph KABILA wanaojidai waasi wa M23 huendelea kumwaga damu ya wasio na hatia ;

- Baada ya kuona kwamba wale ambao wako chanzo cha mauaji hayo siyo wengine bali wananchi wa kigeni au Wakongomani wenye tamaa ya mali ya KONGO ;

-Baada ya kugundua kwamba mauaji haya hayana tofauti na yale ambayo yameendeleshwa wakati uliopita,hasa katika mwaka wa 1998 KITONA na KATINDO ambapo mia ya askari wamewawa wakiwemo maafisa 80 wa daraja ya Sub-Luteni , waliokua wamemaliza kozi ya vijana, na 25 ambao walikuwa KATINDO pamoja na Luteni MUREKEZI , au yale ya KISANGANI wakati wa mfarakano kati ya majeshi ya RWANDA na UGANDA ;

-Tukichukua katika akaunti ushahidi unaothibitisha kwamba wa Jemadhari Bosco NTAGANDA na Sultani MAKENGA ,wahenga wa mauaji hayo,wamepokea msaada wa watu na vifaa kutoka kwa KAGAME ili waendelee kuuana wao kwa wao, na kudhoofisha mazungumzo na Serikali ya KINSHASA yanayoendelea jijini KAMPALA ;

Chama cha Wapiganaji kwa ajili ya Ukombozi wa Kongo, FPLC kwa kifupi,chatangazia umma wa dunia nzima kama ifuatavyo :

1.Kila mtu kulingana na uwezo wake anaombwa kusimama kwa kukemea na kulaani faraka hizi zinazotoka kuchukua waathirika mia , na miongoni mwao zaidi ya maofisa 15 kutoka tarehe ya 24/02/2013,sababu ni mbegu mbaya inayopandwa na inayoweza kukua mahali popote.

2.Kila Mkongomani anaitiwa kutokuwa chombo cha mtu yeyote anayetafuta maslahi yake mwenyewe hasa yaletao madhara kwa usalama na uhuru wa nchi yetu.

3.Chama cha FPLC huzidi kuhakikisha kwamba njia ya umoja na maridhiano kati ya raia wote bila ubaguzi wa kikabila, mkoa, rangi, lugha au dini, kama vile njia ya uzalendo na mshikamano mzuri na nchi jirani,ni msingi pekee wa amani ya kudumu nchini Kongo itakayoleta maendeleo kamili katika Ukanda wa Maziwa Makuu.

4.Chama cha FPLC hutoa tena wito kwa wapiganaji ili waweke chini silaha zao na kufuata njia ya mazungumzo ; chatoa onyo la mwisho kwa wale ambao huchochea chuki na migogoro katika kanda ya Maziwa Makuu kwa kisingizio cha kulinda makundi ya kikabila,wakati ambapo katika hali halisi ni maslahi yao wenyewe wanayoyatafuta ; huzidi kusititiza kwamba hakitaregea kwenye mapambano kilichoyaanza mpaka ukombozi wa Kongo na watu wa Kongo.

Imefanyiwa Goma,tarehe 04/03/2013
Kiongozi wa FPLC
Jemadhari Gadi NGABO

Unknown said...

-Dukurikije ubwicanyi bukomeje gufata intera ndende mu gihugu cyacu cya Kongo, cyane cyane mu karere k’uburasirazuba mu gace ka Rutshuru, aho muri iyi minsi ibikoresho bya Perezida Kagame na Kabila byiyise inyeshyambaza M23 bikomeje kumena amaraso y’inzirakarengane;
-Tumaze kubona ko banyirabayazana atari abandi ahubwo ari abanyamahanga cg abakongomani basonze ye gusahura umutungo wa Kongo;
-Tumaze gusanga ubwo bwicanyi ntaho butaniye n’ubwakozwe mu bihe byashize cyane cyane mu 1998 i KITONA n’ i KATINDO hiciwe abasore barenga 100 harimo ba Ofisiye 80 bo mu rwego rwa Sous-Lieutenant bari barangije amasomo yagisirikare, na 25 bar ikumwe na Lieutenant MUREKEZI i KATINDO, cg ubwabereye KISANGANI igihe ingabo z’u RWANDA zisubiranamo n’iza UGANDA;
-Tugendeye kubimenyetso simusiga bihamya ko ba Jenerali Bosco NTAGANDA na Sultani MAKENGA bayoboye ubwo bwicanyi , bahawe na Kagame inkunga y’ibikoresho ndetse n’abantu kugira ngo bakomeze kumarana bityo baburizemo imishyikirano bagirana na Leta ya Kinshasa;
Ishyaka rya rubanda riharanira kubohoza Kongo,FPLC mu magambo ahinnye y’igifaransa , riratangariza isi yose ibi bikurikira:
1.Buri muntu wese mu bushobozi bwe ,asabwe guhaguruka akamagana kandi akarwanya iri subiranamo ry’abavandimwe, rimaze guhitana inzirakarengane zigeze ku 100 kuva tariki ya 24/O2/2013 zirimo ba Ofisiye basaga 15,kuko ari imbuto mbi iri kubibwa kandi ishobora gusakara.
2.Buri mukongomani wese ahamagariwe kwirinda kuba igikoresho cy’umuntu uwo ari we wese ugamije inyungu ze bwite, cyane cyane izihungabanya umutekano n’ubusugire bw’igihugu cyacu.
3.FPLC ikomeje gushyigikira ko inzira y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge bw’abanyagihugu bose izira kuvangura amoko,inkomoko,isura,ururimi cg idini,yo gukunda igihugu no kubana neza n’abaturanyi , ari yo shingiro ry’amahoro arambye muri Kongo ,izageza akarere kose k’ibiyaga bigari ku majyambere nyayo.
4.FPLC kandi yongeye gusaba ikomeje abari kurwana gushyira intwaro hasi bakayoboka inzira y’ibiganiro.Yiyamye bidasubirwaho abakomeje guhembera inzangano n’amakimbirane mu Karere k’ibiyaga bigari bitwaje ko barwanirira ubwoko runaka, nyamara mu by’ukuri ari inyungu zabo bwite bagamije.Ikomeje kushimangira ko itazatezuka ku rugamba yatangiye kugeza igihe ibohoreje Kongo n’abakongomani bose.

Bikorewe i Goma,tariki ya 04/03/2013
General Gad NGABO

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Unknown said...

I salute you all fellow Congolese and Regional Brothers. I Gen. Ngabo Gad the President of the Front Patriotic For the liberation of Congo(FPLC) and informing the bodies that want to bring peace back in Congo and the Region at large, if the following thing are met and are agreed upon the
1-The president of Congo
2- Other Regional leaders
3-Foreign interference bodies mostly of Europe
To do the following demands.
1. The government of the republic of Congo knows that there are very many groups that are resisting the bad governance in DRC, and this is why these groups are resisting and that up arms. Therefore if the government is thinking of negotiating with the so called M23, which has the 1% or even less of the problems that are facing the Congolese, then there will be no peace in Congo and in the entire E-African region and the Great lakes regions.
2. In the on going way to have a better settled Country and region at large, all the regional leaders should emphasize to sit down and agree or discus with their negative groups of their region and resolve the problem that led them take up arms,
a) Congo should site with the so called negative groups and resolve their issue and embark on developing the country plus working on the security reason in the country. This is people should not just disappear, like chicken.
b) Rwanda should sit down and really agree with the FDLR( FORCES FOR THE DEMOCRATIC LIBERATION OF RWANDA) and then bring up lasting dictatorship attitude by the country’s leader. And also embark in developing their country not to think of introducing the ancient French revolutions of expanding territories.
c) Uganda and Burundi Should also embark on negotiating with their so called negative groups that mostly are in the Congo region that these people are ancaring there with arms
Fellow Congolese that want to bring peace in the Region especially in our Country, we would want all these so called negative groups that are operating in our Country, let the governments in the region agree with them and bring lasting peace, development and security in the region.
Further me, we hope that the campaign that we are doing of bad governance in our country Congo and to have back our country to our self not to stabilize other peoples economies, But if these requests and commands are not taken, then we at FPLC we shall continue with the campaign to have a peaceful, Developed and hospitable country in the region.

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