Painting by Cheri Samba

Lokuta eyaka na ascenseur, kasi vérité eyei na escalier mpe ekomi. Lies come up in the elevator; the truth takes the stairs but gets here eventually. - Koffi Olomide

Ésthetique eboma vélo. Aesthetics will kill a bicycle. - Felix Wazekwa

Sunday, March 10, 2013

Interview: Stabilizing the Kivus––lessons learned, the path ahead


Guillaume Lacaille is an independent political analyst who specializes in conflicts in Africa. He has previously worked as a political officer with MONUC and as the senior Congo analyst for the International Crisis Group (ICG). In 2012, he was seconded by the Swiss government to MONUSCO to support the UN stabilisation unit in redesigning the international stabilisation strategy for eastern Congo (I4S). 

The result of this revision has just been presented to the UN Security Council in a special annex to the report of the UN Secretary-General on the DRC that was released on 15 February.

Background:

Once a major conflict has ended following peace talks and elections, the international community usually funds stabilization activities in conflict-affected areas. Such programs aim at helping a fragile new government to restore state authority and provide the general conditions that would allow for long-term development to pick up and victims of the conflict to resume a normal life.

In the Congo, donors drafted this kind of a stabilization plan in 2007, but it was only in 2009 that the security and political situation was seen as propitious for implementing the International Security and Stabilisation Support Strategy (ISSSS or I4S). Indeed, 2009 was marked by a peace deal with armed groups in the Kivus and the diplomatic reconciliation between the DRC and Rwanda. As a result, the Congolese government rolled out its own programme, the Stabilisation and Reconstruction Plan for Eastern Congo (STAREC).

Together, these interconnected-plans were supposed to take advantage of the relative improvement in security to build infrastructure, redeploy state agents, support a political dialogue process and allow economic recovery to facilitate the return of refugees and IDPs.

At the end of the first 3-year implementation phase, hundreds of miles of roads had been rehabilitated and dozens of administrative building and police stations built, but the Kivus little progress toward long-term stability. After much criticism of STAREC/I4S, donors began questioning the impact of the $270 million already spent for this first phase of I4S. In late 2011, MONUSCO launched a major strategic review of the stabilization efforts, in which Lacaille played a key role. 

Q: There has been a lot of criticism of STAREC and I4S. Briefly, what do you think their major failings were?

A: The initial plan for I4S was drafted in 2007 by a small group of people in the UN headquarters in Kinshasa on a counter-insurgency model of ‘clear-hold-build’. It has good intentions, […] but it was based on a lot of problematic assumptions.

It assumed that the Congolese government and its foreign partners would work together; that the military operations conducted by the national army with UN support would improve security; and that Congolese authorities would hold a political dialogue involving the communities. Also, it was believed that national reforms and local elections would contribute to improving governance in the country.

These assumptions proved incorrect. The leadership of the UN mission in Kinshasa lost interest in making stabilisation a priority, despite the renaming of MONUC into MONUSCO in mid-2010. The successive heads of MONUSCO’s stabilization unit were discouraged from raising key questions with their Congolese counterparts regarding the political choices that were impeding stabilization. Over time, the I4S approach became more and more technical and less political.

Q: Do you think this is the right time to have a major stabilization effort, given the escalation of conflict with M23 and other armed groups? Shouldn't we try to broker an end to the fighting first, and then engage with stabilization?

A: What you suggest is precisely the sequence tried in 2009, with negotiations leading to the 23 March agreement followed by the launch of I4S/STAREC and UN-supported operations to disarm the remnant militias. This failure should be a lesson to us. Firstly, negotiations shouldn’t be opaque like they were in 2009. Secondly, negotiations must be informed by the simultaneous pursuit of an inclusive process to address the causes of the fighting at all levels.

In their initial version, I4S and STAREC did not have the expected results less because of insecurity on the ground than because there was no reconciliation and dialogue processes, and no improvement of the legitimacy and capacity of the state representatives at the local level. Despite continuing military operations against the FDLR and Mayi-Mayi groups, I4S implementing partners were still able to work throughout the Kivus with some good results.

The new I4S that is now presented to the Congolese government and its international partners aims at improving local governance and reducing ethnic tensions through local dialogue mechanisms. Redirecting international resources towards empowering the populations in identifying sources of disputes and formulating responses will positively impact local dynamics in which only rebel leaders and unaccountable Congolese officials currently have influence.

Q: How did the review process take place? Given that there has been a lot of criticism of the absence of Congolese civil society in STAREC and I4S, were their voices and those of the Congolese institutions taken into account?

A: Well, since I also made those criticisms in late 2011, I hope we tried to do a better job for the review. Congolese people in the eastern provinces have looked at stabilisation as another top-down initiative that does not benefit them. In early 2012, when we discussed within the UN stabilization team how to review I4S in coherence with STAREC, we knew inclusiveness was going to be key.

A one-year review process was designed to engage the Congolese STAREC team and political authorities, civil society, UN agencies, donors and implementing partners. We first produced a contextual analysis to understand the weaknesses of the past approach for which twenty different organisations were consulted. Then, the stabilization team started hosting one workshop for each of the 5 pillars of I4S where Congolese and international people from Kinshasa, Goma, Bukavu and Bunia could discuss the strategic principles and content of the new I4S.

Initially, the donors, the UN stabilisation team and a few UN agencies were the most eager to save the mutually interconnect I4S and STAREC from irrelevance, but the Congolese provincial authorities understood very quickly that this could become a locally driven program that could work for them. Even NGOs like OXFAM that were critical in the past now support the revised version of I4S.

The difficulty relies on how to generate interest in Kinshasa. The Congolese national leaders are typically just focused on the M23 crisis. When they do look at the stabilization programs, I think they have mixed reactions. On the one hand, it could be a good stream of international funding for a lot of projects. On the other hand, if implemented as designed, they know it would shift some power to provincial and local authorities, away from Kinshasa. This is why the central government sometimes complains about the lack of consultation in an attempt to subtly block the elements of I4S it doesn’t like.

Q: You have followed the review process closely––what are its main proposals for how to change I4S?  

In the past, the focus was on restoring state authority in areas vacated by rebels through the building of infrastructure and the deployment of state agents. These agents were often unpaid and the provincial authorities had no resources to support them. Without inclusive political settlement of the conflict, reforms of the state administration and the army, as well as decentralisation, I4S was criticized for extending the reach of a “predatory state”. 

The revised I4S maintains 5 clusters of activities (security, democratic dialogue, state authority, early recovery, and fighting sexual violence). The outcomes of the new platforms of dialogue -between communities, the civil society and the local state administrations -will inform all the I4S-funded activities within these 5 clusters.

The democratic dialogue pillar is in fact transversal and should partly compensate for the absence of an inclusive peace process. I4S security projects will improve the FARDC’s ‘holding capacity’ and facilitate the cohabitation of locally deployed soldiers and civilians. Socio-economic projects will be informed by discussions with the communities with the aim of building social cohesion in areas of return and refuge.

During the workshops it was decided to focus the ‘state authority’ pillar on helping states agents to answer better and more equally the most basic needs of the people through the provision of incentives. The population will be regularly asked for prioritizing these needs and for performance feedback to try to bring in basic accountability for state agents (as well as the international partners).


Q: One of the central complaints has been the lack of Congolese government ownership––it only pledged $20 million of the $340 million in projects for STAREC/I4S, and three quarters of that has not been disbursed. While the proposed changes to I4S give greater voice to local communities, there is little here than suggests more genuine involvement from the government in Kinshasa.

You are totally right, and this is partly because the international community has failed to present the political benefits of a stabilization program to the government in Kinshasa. To be fair, until recently, diplomats at the UN Security Council and Secretariat had barely heard of the existence of I4S/STAREC.

The Congolese leadership has consistently favoured a military approach to put an end to the successive crises in the Kivus. This approach is yet again encouraged by the talks of a new international brigade under MONUSCO to defeat the rebels who resist the FARDC.

When the M23 recently attempted to mobilize support beyond the Tutsi community, it pointed at the failure of President Kabila to fix the abysmal Congolese governance. Most people in eastern DRC, even those who opposed the M23, agree with that the government in Kinshasa isn’t delivering and call into question President Kabila’s legitimacy.

It is in Kabila’s political interest to demonstrate that he is actively working on the causes of conflict in eastern DRC. By promoting STAREC in the Kivus and showing initial positive results, he would demonstrate to the Congolese people that the rebels have no legitimate agenda that justifies their actions.


Q: The Secretary-General's special report on MONUSCO was published just a few days ago. It included a section on I4S, giving some ideas about the way forward. What do you make of the report?

To be honest, I am puzzled. The special report talks about the need to address the root causes and is meant to inform discussions on how to streamline MONUSCO’s mandate. It doesn’t include a section on I4S, it just briefly mentions it once under the humanitarian chapter.

It is curious that the UN Stabilisation Mission in the Congo excludes from its political priorities its own $340 million stabilisation strategy, which is precisely the only platform that has been collectively designed at the ground level to address root causes. I fear that the promoters of a “peace enforcement” mandate for MONUSCO downplay the important role to be played by the UN civilian specialists in Goma, Bukavu, or Bunia to actually help promote peace.

I’m also worried that with the new regional Peace and Security Framework the focus will remain on unmonitored commitments made at the regional and national levels, and on military offensives at the local level. I4S can only work as part of a holistic approach that integrates the diplomatic, political and military strategies at the regional, national and local levels.

The top leadership of the UN is in the best position to promote coherence among these interdependent strategies. And if the donors are not confident that this coherence exists and that MONUSCO is capable of leading on stabilisation, there will likely be little funding for the next phase of I4S. Then, the result of the one-year strategic review of I4S will just remain an interesting concept paper.

27 comments:

pawan kumar said...

Accommodation in New Delhi- Are you looking for Hotels in Delhi? Call cheap hotel in Delhi Today @+91-9810104774 for Hotels in Delhi at affordable rates.

Lisa Ann said...

I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you create this website yourself? Plz reply back as I’m looking to create my own blog and would like to know wheere u got this from. thanks
bad credit business loan

campaigns said...

Birthday Cake Designs | Unique Birthday Cakes | Custom Birthday Cakes | Tangled Birthday Cake | Princess Birthday Cakes

Buy Electronics | Online Electronics | Electronic Supplies | Cheap Electronics | All Electronics | New Electronics

Cheap Accessories | Prom Accessories | Hair Accessories | Designer Accessories | Iphone Accessories | Women s Accessories

Cheap Furniture | Dining Room Furniture | Home Furniture | Baby Furniture | Affordable Furniture | Outdoor Furniture

Cheap Ipods | Ipod Nano | Apple Ipods | Ipod Touch | Ipod Cases | Ipod Prices | Buy Ipod | Used Ipods | Ipod 4g | Ipod Mini

Karansingh said...

Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts Service
Mumbai Independent Escorts
Mumbai Female Escorts
Mumbai bollywood Escorts
Mumbai top Escorts
Mumbai escorts in mumbai
Mumbai vip escorts, escort mumbai
Mumbai Independnet escorts
Mumbai hi fi call girls
Mumbai Hot Model
Mumbai escorts agency
Mumbai female escort
Mumbai call girl
Mumbai independent call girls
escorts in mumbai
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai top escorts, mumbai escorts
Mumbai female escorts, escorts in mumbai
Escort mumbai, mumbai female escorts
Escorts agency in mumbai
Mumbai Escorts, mumbai female escorts
Mumbai Escorts, escort mumbai,
Mumbai Escorts Service
Independent Escorts in mumbai
Escorts In Mumbai

Jhnony Blaze said...

Thanks for talking about your web page, I study your web page and your web page is motivating. Hi People, Thanks for looking at my web page. My name is Alisha Kapoor, I offer a relaxed comfortable atmosphere for any man who would like to encounter the company of a wonderful, stylish lady like myself. So don't be shy to contact me and do your thing.
http://www.alishakapoor.in/

Jhnony Blaze said...

I read your web journal and your online journal is entrancing and much obliged concerning offering the online journal. Welcome to Delhi69escorts, we are an overall denied and generally secured in Delhi, Gurgaon, and Faridabad, we pride ourselves on having the most lovely determination of escorts in Delhi for you. The most rich and shocking autonomous escort that you are ever liable to meet, in this manner we directly question all our young ladies to guarantee that aside from wonderfulness and grace, they radiate trust and also a well-disposed nature ensuring your pleasure. http://www.delhi69escorts.com/

Rambo Blood said...

Your Weblog is quite amazing and give more information about companion. Delhimoods have model companion ladies with delightful mouth, lengthy eyelash, and exclusive fascinating eyes; you will not be able to quit looking into them! You will love operating your fingertips through her smooth chocolates shaded hair and along her lengthy, slimmer feet. If you appreciate a traditional elegance, Let the ladies be the celebrity of your evening, and please you beyond your craziest fantasies! http://www.delhimoods.com/model-escorts-in-delhi.html

Rambo Blood said...

Thanks for talking about the blog site and I appreciate learning this blog site. Hi, my name is Tina Kapoor, from Noida. I do personal companion in Delhi as well. I have wonderful long hair, stunning experience, smooth sleek skin, my gently-rounded full boobies and fresh circular base will capture your eye and burn your heart. My carefully attractive mouth and dazzling clear brownish sight portray from my stunning experience and I have an attractive grin that will completely entertain you. http://www.tinakapoor.co.in/noida-escorts-girl.html

monika singh said...

OUR Mumbai Escorts OFFER SERVICES TO REPUTABLE CLIENTELE FOR BUSINESS TRIPS, PLEASURE COMPANIONSHIP AND VACATIONING WHILE VISITING BANGALORE.


Visit
female Mumbai Escorts

www.sanjanaverma.com

Pragya Gupta said...

I am an molly shah From Mumbai Exclusive Independent Model,my age 23year old ,my schooling is DPS and my collage is in Mumbai University.


Mumbai Female Escorts

Maria Arora said...

I am Pooja Chaudhari providing Delhi Escort Service in Delhi NCR aria, if you are searching beautiful models for home and hotels of city just visit my website -Chaudhari providing Delhi Escort Service get my phone number and call me.

Mark Evans said...

Wow Palak Sharma has been friendlier, enjoyed felt me pleased with quality delhi call girl services that were full of thrills and excitement and I really went wild. Now looking forward again to see best delhi call girl!

Garima Verma said...

Quality services of escorts can be only found here Escorts in Delhi here we have college girls doing this work for fun and easy money they want to earn money without lot of struggle so the love to be an escorts and love this work because they give pleasure and get pleasure from people of different cultures .

Garima Verma said...

The girls in our club are totally attractive with decent charming personality that is eye catching and makes men crazy and lusty for the services you might be looking for when you are here in Delhi, hunting Delhi Independent Escorts provider all our escorts female.Welcome to Russian Escort most stunning Escorts in Delhi.

Garima Verma said...

We are the primary Escorts in Delhi that provides our patrons nothing but high class service and a terrific collection of escorts Delhi. 100% Maturity and 100% approval are two of our unique aims so as to make certain that extreme trust and protection are foster within our field.

sargam india said...

Buy Cheapest Split AC Online.
Sargam Electronics

Amisha Khanna said...

Nobody likes to be alone especially in Delhi, human beings are social faunas they aren’t exactly in their peak when alone.Because of this many firms have come to life in the region, so that nobody is left out.Escorts In Delhi are the people who chose to do something about it.
Now to describe them in simple terms, they are a bunch of dazzling women who will enjoy company.To look at this from a business perspective, escorts are the pretty faces which
will boost the confidence of the person in front of their earls.It’s no doubt that having a good looking partner will put a smile on practically anybody’s face.Now this is something which money can buy.

Visit our website: http://www.delhi-escort-services.com
Call us @ +91-9818989842

Delhi Escort Service
Delhi Escort Agency
Delhi Escort
Escort in Delhi
Delhi Escort Services

Sanjana Thakur said...

Hi, friends my self Sanjana Thakur, I belongs to delhi, I work in Delhi as delhi independent escort, if you need my services you can contact me through any of my website, below is the list of my websites you can go there and choose the model girls available with me.

Independent Delhi Escort Service, Delhi Escorts Service, Delhi Escorts Agency, Delhi Escort Female, Delhi Escort Girl Service

Thanks for your valuable time, you can visit me through any of these websites.

Arpita said...

Anjali is a famous Mumbai Escorts as well as Independent 24/7 Days Escort Services in Mumbai for select gentlemen looking for Mumbai escort Girl.
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Escorts
http://www.anjali-singh.com/

Arpita said...

Mumbai Escorts Komall is Luxury High Profile Ramp model offering Mumbai Independent Escort #24/7 Service with Luxury Mumbai Escort Model.
Mumbai Independent Escort

Arpita said...

Yes I like it Your Blog.Keep it up give more latest post.
Mumbai Escorts
http://exort.in/
Mumbai Escort Girl
Mumbai Escort Service

Arpita said...

My Escort Services four- Mumbai, Andheri Escort, Juhu, bandara, Escort Service sided figure measure available 24*7 in Mumbai. I am here to require you within the world of feminine Mumbai escorts. seductive and knows how to brightness her gentleman.
Mumbai Escorts
Andheri Escort
Andheri Escort Service

Khusbu khanna said...

Your Delhi escort is just a phone call away. Simply dial +91-9971070539 from anywhere in the city and a Delhi escort girl will arrive at your doorstep within a few minutes. Quick, safe and reliable, it's the best way to hire girls within the city, at pre-approved rates. Our escorts are very beautiful and trained girls provide utmost satisfaction and peace of mind with our escort girl.

Khusbu khanna said...

Khanna providing Delhi Escort Service

Khusbu khanna said...

anytime 24*7 and Enjoy the riding of the cute girls in Delhi Escorts, Delhi Independent Escorts and many more exotic teens available for you. I am Khusbu khanna here to celebrate your every sucsess and business parties.

Khanna providing Delhi Escort Service
Khanna providing Delhi Escort Service
Khanna providing Delhi Escort Service
Khanna providing Delhi Escort Service
Escort in delhi
Escort in delhi
Escort in delhi
Escort in delhi
Escort in delhi
Escort in delhi
Escort in delhi
Escort in delhi
Escort in delhi
Escort in delhi
Escort in delhi
Escort in delhi
Delhi escort agency
Delhi escort agency
Delhi escort agency
Delhi escort agency
Delhi escort agency
Delhi escort agency
Delhi escort agency
Delhi escort agency
Delhi escort agency
Delhi escort agency

Alisha Sofi said...

Delhi escort service

lovely maria said...

Mumbai Escorts

Mumbai Independent escorts

escorts in mumbai

mumbai female escorts

mumbai escort

mumbai high class escorts

Independent mumbai escorts

mumbai call girls

mumbai sexy escorts

escorts girl in mumbai

Post a Comment